China and the Saudi-Iranian rapprochement: implications for Yemen (2023)

The conclusion of the Chinese-brokered Saudi-Iranian detente on March 10, aimed at thawing long-standing feuds and managing competition between the two regional archrivals, has multiple implications for Yemen. For Saudi Arabia, Iran's role and influence in Yemen, with which Riyadh shares a 1,458km border and Red Sea coastline, was once non-negotiable but can now be managed under controlled tensions. Because Iran, which has reaped major strategic gains from its security, military, intelligence and long-term economic aid to the Houthis, is unlikely to grant it just because the two countries have agreed on a tentative roadmap for normalization. In fact, Riyadh's and Tehran's perceptions of threats and ambitions for regional hegemony remain largely the same, as Iran's role and influence in Yemen remain unchecked eight years after the coalition military intervention. Arabic in March 2015.

Both Saudi Arabia andwillethey now support, at least publicly, an extended ceasefire, if not a ceasefire, in Yemen, followed by inter-Yemeni peace talks and the formation of a "universal national government." While this formula could, at the most basic level, offer Saudi Arabia a way out of the military phase of the conflict, it would also allow Iran to gain a foothold in Yemen and present the Houthis with a multitude of options. In principle, Saudi Arabia, which has had limited results after eight years of military intervention and is suffering from war fatigue, and Iran, which has benefited from its growing influence and regional influence over the past decade, agreed to handle their differences and the Hold . certain point to share by then.

For the Houthis, trying to unravel the Saudi-Iranian regional plane of the conflict could mean it will become increasingly localized in the future, allowing the rebels to focus on crushing local players one by one. Like Taleb al-Hassani, editor of the Houthi-run news channel Al Masirah,countedCNN: "If Saudi Arabia continues to wait for a Yemeni-Yemeni deal before leaving, it will wait many years." the Government of the Republic of Yemen (ROYG) and Houthi forces stress that Houthi military operations are far from over. In fact, they are to scale. In 2015, Nabeel Khoury, a non-resident senior fellow at the Atlantic Council,he wrote, “Saudi Arabia began its war against the Houthis in March 2015; the Houthis started their war against the rest of Yemen in September 2014.” Eight years later, as Saudi Arabia's war against the Houthis nears its conclusion, the Houthis want a de-escalation with Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, but not necessarily with the rest of Yemen, as they have made clear. his recent climbs.

Der Jointtrilateral declarationThe documents issued by Saudi Arabia, China and Iran offer few details on the confidence-building measures, but include a "collective reaffirmation of respect for state sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of [Arab] states." ". Iranian non-interference in the internal affairs of Arab states has long been a demand of Saudi Arabia and most other Arab countries. Yemen has been Riyadh's top priority in its talks with Tehran amid efforts by the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) and Hezbollah to supply the Houthis with weapons, equipment and ammunition, as well as military advisers, missile experts and drones and free oil and others. things. The Houthis owe their strategic skills, which they used against Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and the ROYG as a means of coercion, blackmail and deterrence, to the IRGC and the Iranian network of paramilitary forces in the region. Saudi-Iranian détente has a long and difficult road ahead; for Saudi Arabia, “the big test is in Yemen”, as the Saudi writer Abdul Rahman al-Rashed correctly put itexplained. For now, the Saudi-Iranian agreement to restore full diplomatic relations in two months remains far from full reconciliation.

time and context

The Saudi-Iran deal may have come as a surprise, but intensified talks on multiple fronts, including Yemen, since 2021 have shown intent and direction. In 2021-22, Iraq under Prime Minister Mustafa al-Kadhimi facilitated five rounds of talks between Iran and Saudi Arabia and Oman's role increased after Kadhimi.leave the office. In those negotiations, the Yemeni archive was undoubtedly one of Saudi Arabia's top priorities, if not the most important, given concerns about Iran's "subversive" role on its borders, not to mention that negotiations between Saudi Arabia and the Houthis, at times, along with Saudi Arabia took place the Saudi-Iranians.

(Video) What are the implications of Saudi-Iranian diplomatic deal?

Talks between Saudi Arabia and the Houthis that have accelerated since the Houthisrefusedto extend Yemen's six-month ceasefire until October 2022 have reported no progress despite Tehran's continued commitment. Now that Saudi Arabia and Iran are trying to work out a tentative deal across the region, Tehran is likely to use its influence to pressure the Houthis to at least agree to a ceasefire or extended truce.

After facing an internal revolt and tightening Western sanctions in 2022 over stalled negotiations to revive the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), Iran is now seeking a tactical thaw on all fronts for further de-escalation at home and abroad. abroad in the Gulf region, including the JCPOA. Given Saudi Arabia's clear national security interests and desire to exit the conflict, Yemen is one of the areas where, on the surface at least, progress in rapprochement efforts can be most easily seen. It is relatively easy for Iran to bring the Houthis to the table by reinvigorating a protracted ceasefire, followed by the resumption of inter-Yemeni peace talks that can last for days, months or years. Implementing any agreements that may emerge from the talks, however, is an entirely different story, given the Houthi's record of failing to comply with peace accords, ceasefires and ceasefires.

Riyadh has been seeking a way out of the military phase of the conflict in Yemen since 2020, as evidenced by its unilateral ceasefire announcements in 2020 and 2021, particularly after the Iranian-backed drone.attacksin Abqaiq and Khurais in September 2019. For the Kingdom to achieve its Vision 2030 goals, regional stability, particularly at its borders, is a prerequisite. When the US and Iran agreed to resume JCPOA talks in Vienna in February 2021, the Houthis refused to participate in de-escalation efforts, instead escalating militarily into central Yemen in hopes of seizing the conquest of the oil-rich province of Marib. The then leader of Hezbollah and pro-IRGC Iranian media outlet Tasnim News AgencyFantasticthe strategic importance of the Houthi offensive in Marib for Yemen and the region. Just as Syria, Iraq and Lebanon have used it, Iran has used the Yemeni file as part of its broader effort to achieve its foreign and defense objectives. One consequence of this is that none of the regional actors involved in the mediation or mediation efforts between Iran and Saudi Arabia could offer guarantees and/or benefits that would be accepted by both Riyadh and Tehran, and here China comes into play.

What's in the Yemen deal?

The deal is not zero-sum and offers several short-term gains for Saudi Arabia, Iran and the Houthis, but much less, if any, for the ROYG. Given Saudi Arabia's national security goals, particularly to guard against Iranian-supplied drones and missiles used by the Houthis, Iran would have agreed, at least in theory, to discourage cross-border attacks on the kingdom by the Houthis and other pro-Houthi organizations. Iranians. Paramilitary groups in Iraq and Syria. Between 2015 and April 2022, Saudi Arabia wasto defeatby more than 1,000 rocket/missile attacks and 350 drone strikes, mostly by Houthi and pro-Iranian militias in Iraq. Existing US defense capabilities in Riyadh were unable to adequately deal with the threats posed by the Iranian-supplied drones. Also RiyadhWaitTehran stops sending arms and drugs to the Houthis to support their remote war effort and their funding for the war.

But the ban on at least seven Iranian arms and drug shipments destined for the Houthis between December 2022 and March 2023 by the British, US and French navies casts doubt on Iran's commitment to the arms embargo laid down in the UN Security Resolution 2216. . recent bansincludingmore than 5,000 weapons, 30 anti-tank missiles, about 1.5 million cartridges, and drugs (including methamphetamine and hashish) worth more than $80 million. Previous deliveries have included surface-to-air missiles, drone kits, and cruise missile engines for ground attacks. It remains to be seen whether Iran will commit to halting the previously publicly denied transfer of arms in the short or long term. The fact that the IRGC has not commented on recent moves by the State Department raises other questions.

(Video) How important was China for the Iran-Saudi Arabia deal? | DW News

Iran, for its part, expects a takeover bid by Saudi Arabialow, if not disturbing, its coverage of internal uprisings in Persian-language media supported by Saudi Arabia, to not allow its territory or airspace to be used for attacks against Iran, and to promote normalization of relations with Syria . Along with these goals, Iran is also pushing for recognition of the realities on the ground in Yemen, particularly regarding the position of the Houthis. On March 23, Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesman Nasser Kanaani "repudiated statements linking events in Yemen to Iran and stressed the need for realism."respectivelyfor the Iranian outlet Tasnim. In fact, Iran is trying to consolidate its gains in an agile and adaptable way.

The two countries' agreement to reopen diplomatic missions within two months rather than immediately, particularly given the timing of the agreement two weeks before the eighth anniversary of the Saudi-led military intervention in Yemen, suggests that Riyadh may have evidence of what expected in good faith. Iran Yemen is seeking a change in relations with enemies and state and non-state actors throughout the Middle East. Like Dina Esfandiary and Anna Jacobs of Crisis Group,observed, "Riyadh has advanced towards Yemen, a prerequisite for resuming diplomatic relations with Iran."

Impact on Yemen

While Iran, Saudi Arabia and China, for different reasons, wanted to emphasize the diminished role of the US in the region through the China-brokered deal, any thaw in relations between Saudi Arabia and Iran, or even between Iran and USA, it would be gradual. Yemen, and the Houthis in particular, are reflecting on this, for better or worse. Flexibility with Iran largely requires flexibility with Iranian-backed proxies in the region, particularly the Houthis, against whom Saudi Arabia has led a coalition since March 2015.

Given Iran's relations with the Houthis and Riyadh's efforts to secure a life-saving exit, Saudi Arabia may be seeking a "quick fix" to its problems that would do little to address the true roots of the conflict. Nadwa al-Dawsari, MEI Foreign Scholar,counted Wall Street Zeitung, “Everyone desperately wants the Saudis out of Yemen. They tend to confuse the Saudi exit from the Yemen war with peace." While the international community may see the geopolitical maturation of the situation as an opportunity for a breakthrough, Riyadh's vision is focused on the exit. The post-exit strategy remains unclear and is a work in progress. In the short term, this can lead to the localization of the conflict instead of its permanent resolution. Yazeed al-Jeddawy, research coordinator at the Center for Strategic Studies in Sana'a, told the author that "although the Houthis are interested in a ceasefire and de-escalation with Yemen's immediate border, particularly with Saudi Arabia, they are not interested in a sustained de-escalation with ROYG and the rest of the Yemeni fabric.”

The recent rises of the Houthis confirm this assessment. Ahead of the anniversary of the Saudi-led coalition's military intervention and following the Chinese-brokered deal between Saudi Arabia and Iran, the Houthis have sent five increasing signals domestically and in the region: a Houthi military operation.Distrito de Harib de Marib; Aarrogant military paradewith sea mines at Hodeidah in the southern Red Sea; a militarycrossuse of heavy weapons, including missiles, drones and helicopters, in al-Jawf province on the border with Saudi Arabia; HeDangersuspend the work of the UN special envoy; and a drone strike against the convoy carrying the defense minister, the chief of staff of the Yemeni armed forces and the governor of Taiz en route from al-Moha to the city of Taiz. Through these actions, the Houthis send a series of messages, both internal and external.

(Video) Why Iran and Saudi Arabia are moving to restore diplomatic ties | DW News

Most importantly, while the Houthis have sought escalation on several fronts to underscore their decision-making autonomy and distance themselves from the Saudi-Iran deal, and from Tehran in particular, it hurts not to reach a de-escalation deal. prior to China-sponsored agreement with this effort. His military parade through the Red Sea, which illustrated his attempts to build basic naval capability and possess naval mines, sent a clear message about the potential for maritime escalation. The Houthi military exercise on the Saudi border, similar to the 2015 exercise, highlighted the coalition's military failures and highlighted its more threatening conventional and unconventional capabilities compared to eight years earlier. Along with the recent internal escalations, the Houthis are clearly signaling that any future concessions made by Saudi Arabia, directly or indirectly, and the ROYG will not necessarily spell the end of the conflict. In fact, this may only be the beginning of a new, increasingly localized phase, as the freeze on conflicts may not last long given the geographical fragmentation of control and influence.

zoom out

In many ways, the Saudi-Iran deal is not a zero-sum game, and the various players involved may want to play different roles going forward. For China, its role in brokering the deal marks an increasing shift in competition from major powers in the Middle East, where the US remains involved but must re-emphasize its regional policies. Both Saudi Arabia and Iran view China as a more neutral mediator and Chinapoints of viewas a "trustworthy friend of both countries". In fact, China is the two countries' biggest trading partner, a major source of foreign currency for Iran, and has strategic ties to Riyadh and Tehran. However, China's promotion of Saudi-Iran rapprochement "does not necessarily mean that Beijing will intervene if Tehran decides to go against it," said Yasmine Farouk, a nonresident fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.observed. While Chinese diplomacy now faces a major test due to its new role in the regional security architecture as "sponsor" but not necessarily guarantor, Beijing's involvement will almost certainly undermine its soft power, prestige, and reputation as a leading force for strengthen stability in the Middle East. If successful, Beijing could expand this to other files or regions, including Africa.

China's strategic motives include ensuring greater uninterrupted access to Saudi and Iranian oil, which is vital to its continued economic growth, and protecting its geo-economic interests, particularly as investment in Saudi Red Sea ports increases.Wake up, in support of his Belt and Road initiative. The recent announcement of a US$12.2 billion Saudi-Chinese joint venture for an integrated refining and petrochemical complexreflexesmutual interest in investment and trade. Another strategic goal for China is to raise more questions about the credibility and reliability of the US role in the region, a goal that Iran shares. Riyadh, like Abu Dhabi, was disappointed by what it saw as inadequate security guarantees from the US in its Vision 2030 goals, in part by pitting major powers against each other to maximize profits and enhance its view of the position of negotiation. towards the United States, also on the question ofnuclearcan.

Given China's influence over Iran, the strategic expansion of relations with Saudi Arabia after President Xi JinpingVisitRiyadh in December 2022, the recent sponsorship of the Iran-Saudi Arabia deal and its own strategic interests in the region, Beijing has leeway to bolster its diplomatic position in Yemen if it so chooses. Beijing could eventually position itself, as well as Moscow, to mediate or facilitate negotiations, including indirect ones, between the Houthis, the ROYG, Saudi Arabia, Iran and Oman, particularly if their interests are affected. China is currently in talks with regional sponsors and can continue to take advantage of these relationships if it chooses. In recent months, China's acting ambassador to Yemen, Chu Ch'ing,intensifiedhis visits to Yemen and his investment-oriented talks in line with China's earlier intention to invest in the development of the Port of Aden under the dealfinished2013 entre Gulf of Aden Ports Corporation y China Harbour Engineering Company.

As for Saudi Arabia, by taking this step, Riyadh is seeking to maximize its strategic autonomy, diversify its external partnerships and security providers, and deepen its ties with other major powers to reduce, not eliminate, US influence as the Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman. and President Joe Biden are reassessing and recalibrating relations between Saudi Arabia and the United States. Relations. At a time of heightened global instability, perceived US insecurity and multiple security threats, as well as ambitious plans for economic prosperity, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates are seeking closer ties with China and Russia. , represent a protection against a fragile unipolar world. US-led US-dominated order and a slow drive towards multipolarity. If the Yemen side of the deal falls apart, Saudi Arabia would have at least tried another route.

(Video) Gravitas: Iran, Saudi Arabia restore relations in deal brokered by China

For Iran, the deal provides a necessary tactical thaw, allowing it to rebuild its image at home and abroad, garner economic support and try to ease sanctions. Given Tehran's record of deals, including its negotiations with the International Atomic Energy Agency, previous Saudi-Iranian MoUs in the 1990s and 2000s, or the UN Security Council arms embargo on the Houthis , to name a few, there are many questions about whether Iran can really commit to the approximation schedule. Tehran could decide to maneuver by reducing its support for the Houthis in the near term while pressure to build confidence mounts. But it is unclear whether, given the IRGC's military doctrine and the possibility that the Houthis could abandon Iran entirely in favor of Saudi Arabia, Iran will concede the strategic gains it has made in Yemen on its arch-rival's border. All of this suggests that the ROYG will most likely face credible pressure from friend and foe to make significant concessions in favor of the Houthis, a scenario that begs the question of what, if any, concessions the Houthis would make in the future. this stage. and what this means for the prospects for a just and lasting peace in Yemen.

Addressing the regional level of the conflict in Yemen through a Saudi-Iranian rapprochement, including through direct and indirect negotiations between Saudi Arabia and the Houthis, can help, but is far from sufficient given the internal nature of the conflict and its causes. sustained peacebuilding efforts. as well as the complex layers involved. On a tactical level, there could be a breakthrough in the form of a prolonged ceasefire, followed by a possible resumption of inter-Yemeni talks. However, whether such steps would lead to lasting peace remains an open question. For peacebuilding efforts to truly take root in Yemen, they must address the internal roots of the conflict, represent the progressive aspirations of the Yemeni people, and garner regional and international support.

Ibrahim Jalali is a Yemeni security, conflict and defense researcher; non-resident MEI fellow; and co-founder of the Security Distillery think tank. His research interests include the UN-led peace process in Yemen, the US counter-terrorism strategy in Yemen, and the rise of the Houthi insurgency.

Photo by MOHAMMED HUWAIS/AFP via Getty Images

The Middle East Institute (MEI) is an independent, nonpartisan, nonprofit educational organization. She does not defend herself and the opinions of the scholars of her are her own. MEI accepts financial donations but retains sole editorial control over its work and its publications reflect only the views of the authors. For a list of MEI donors, clickHere.

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How has China helped Yemen? ›

Another treaty of friendship was signed on June 9, 1964, along with additional agreements of cooperation in economic, technical and cultural development. China provided support in building factories and roads, and Beijing provided Yemen another interest-free loan, in the amount of $500,000.

What are the issues between Saudi Arabia and Yemen? ›

The Houthi–Saudi Arabian conflict is an ongoing armed conflict between the Royal Saudi Armed Forces and Iran-backed Yemeni Houthi forces that has been taking place in the Arabian Peninsula, including the southern Saudi regions of Asir, Jizan, and Najran, and northern Yemeni governorates of Saada, Al Jawf, and Hajjah, ...

Why is Saudi Arabia intervention in Yemen? ›

The Bab el-Mandeb Strait off the coast of Yemen is a critical oil shipping lane that links the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, and the Saudis wanted to ensure they were in control of it.

What is the account for the rivalry between Saudi Arabia and Iran in the Middle East? ›

The rivalry has drawn comparisons to the dynamics of the Cold War era. As of 2017, the rivalry is primarily a political and economic struggle exacerbated by religious differences, and sectarianism in the region is exploited by both countries for geopolitical purposes as part of a larger conflict.

What has been done to help the Yemen crisis? ›

Islamic Relief is working with the World Food Programme to distribute food across Yemen, helping ensure more than 2 million people every month have enough to eat. We run over 160 health facilities, ensuring doctors and nurses have the resources they need to treat sick and wounded people.

Which country is supporting Yemen? ›

Others. On 17 September 2020, a United Nations panel named Canada as one of the countries helping fuel the war in Yemen.

What 2 major problems is Yemen having? ›

What are some of the biggest challenges people face in Yemen? drought and flooding, are also key drivers of displacement and have heightened existing needs.

What is the biggest problem in Yemen? ›

Millions of children lack access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene services, and the country continues to experience regular outbreaks of cholera, measles, diphtheria and other vaccine-preventable diseases.

What is the main conflict in Yemen? ›

The Yemeni civil war (Arabic: الحرب الأهلية اليمنية, romanized: al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah al-yamanīyah) is an ongoing multilateral civil war that began in late 2014 mainly between the Rashad al-Alimi-led Yemeni government and the Houthi armed movement, along with their supporters and allies.

What are the Houthis fighting for? ›

The Houthis aims to govern whole Yemen, and external anti-imperialist movements against the United States, Israel, and Saudi Arabia. They have launched repeated missile and drone attacks against Saudi cities. The conflict is widely seen as a proxy war between Saudi Arabia and Iran.

Who is Saudi Arabia allies with? ›

Sunni Islam is the main religion of Saudi. China and Saudi Arabia are major allies, with relationship between the two countries growing significantly in recent decades. A majority of Saudi Arabians have expressed a favorable view of China.

Is Yemen Sunni or Shia? ›

Shia Islam in Yemen is practiced by a significant minority of the population; it is estimated that Zaydi Muslims comprise about 35 percent of the population. Sunnis make up 65 percent, and there are also much smaller communities of Muslims who are of the Isma'ili and Twelver Shia sects.

What is the current relationship between Saudi Arabia and Iran? ›

Saudi Arabia and Iran have had tense relations for years, but on Friday, the two countries took a step towards toning down their animosity. Saudi Arabia and Iran agreed to restore diplomatic ties that were cut several years ago, and the mediator was China. NPR's Deborah Amos joins us now.

What are the two main countries involved in Middle East conflicts? ›

The still currently unresolved Palestine and Israel conflict.

Who does Iran support in the Middle East? ›

Iran is a Shia-Muslim majority state, while most regimes in the Middle East are governed by Sunni Muslim rulers—notably Saudi Arabia, one of its significant regional rivals. Iran claims to act to protect Shia Muslims. To combat US and Israel and competitors such as Saudi Arabia.

Is the United States helping Saudi Arabia in Yemen? ›

The U.S. Navy has actively participated in the Saudi-led naval blockade, which humanitarian organizations argue has been the main contributing factor to the outbreak of famine in Yemen.

Why does the U.S. support the war in Yemen? ›

The United States is committed to Yemen's stability, security and economic recovery, including supporting its ability to counter the malign influence of Iran and defeat terrorist groups such as ISIS and Al-Qaeda.

Who is helping Yemen in the war? ›

Since the beginning of the war in 2015, the EU has contributed over €1.4 billion to respond to the crisis in Yemen. This includes €998 million in humanitarian aid and €487 million in development assistance. EU humanitarian aid focuses on assisting the most vulnerable people in the country.

Who helps Yemen in war? ›

UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, provides lifesaving aid to displaced Yemenis, as well as to refugees and asylum-seekers across the country, reaching people in need in all 20 governorates affected by the conflict.

What has China done for refugees? ›

Many people would be surprised to know that China admitted and locally settled more than 250,000 Vietnamese refugees from 1978 to 1982,2 or that China was one of the first Asian States to become a party to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (Refugee Convention) and its 1967 Protocol (collectively ...

Who is trying to help Yemen? ›

The International Rescue Committee provides lifesaving emergency aid, clean water, education, women's protection and medical care to millions of people in Yemen affected by violent conflict and a growing health crisis that now includes COVID-19.

How has China helped African countries? ›

China is now Africa's biggest trading partner, with Sino-African trade topping $200 billion per year. Over 10,000 Chinese firms are currently operating throughout the African continent, and the value of Chinese business there since 2005 amounts to more than $2 trillion, with $300 billion in current investments.

Who are the main allies of Yemen? ›

Diplomatic relations between these countries were established in November 1967 when India recognized Yemen's independence from the United Kingdom. Relations continue to be in good shape notwithstanding India's close partnership with Saudi Arabia or Yemen's close ties with Pakistan. India has an embassy in Sana'a.

Who are the two sides fighting in Yemen? ›

The Yemeni civil war (Arabic: الحرب الأهلية اليمنية, romanized: al-ḥarb al-ʾahlīyah al-yamanīyah) is an ongoing multilateral civil war that began in late 2014 mainly between the Rashad al-Alimi-led Yemeni government and the Houthi armed movement, along with their supporters and allies.

Are there currently US troops in Yemen? ›

Arabian Peninsula Region.

A small number of United States military personnel are deployed to Yemen to conduct operations against al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula and ISIS.

Why doesn t China welcome refugees? ›

Chinese political ideology actively discourages the acceptance of non-Chinese migrants: non-interference in other countries domestic affairs is the cornerstone of its foreign policy, and accepting refugees is often viewed as demonstrating a political preference of the country of origin.

What is China's stance on refugees? ›

Summary. In recent years, China has expanded its overseas humanitarian action to assist refugees, including through increased funding to UN agencies, bilateral and multilateral diplomatic engagement, and growth in the overseas activities of Chinese civil society.

What is China's position on refugees? ›

China established the National Immigration Administration in 2018. Globally China has pledged support for refugees at the 2016 UN General Assembly, 2017 Belt & Road Forum, 2019 Global Refugee Forum and its 2020 Position Paper on the 75th Anniversary of the UN.


1. The Israeli perspective on resumption of Saudi-Iran relations
(Al Jazeera English)
2. Can Saudi-Iran rapprochement help end the war in Yemen? | Al Jazeera Newsfeed
(Al Jazeera English)
3. #MED23 | Iran-Saudi Arabia: A Made in China Rapprochement?
(ISPI International)
4. Saudi-Iranian Rapprochement and Its Impact on Yemen
(Washington Center for Yemeni Studies)
5. China’s Middle East Deal: Iran & Saudi Arabia Reestablish Relations as U.S. Watches from Sidelines
(Democracy Now!)
6. Iran and Saudi Arabia agree to restore diplomatic relations
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